Sunday, October 10, 2010

How e-mail works? .. even a caveman can understand, yes even a caveman

SMTP (Port 25): handles outgoing mail
POP3/IMAP (Port 110/143): handles incoming mail

Let's have scenario: John Doe at is sending email to Laura Johnson at John Doe is using Outlook to send an email. Laura is using web for
(Outlook, web interface are the front end for the users. They are just the GUI interface)

John uses Outlook--> send email from account to Laura Johnson having account--> Laura checks email at

1. Outlook connects to SMTP server at using Port 25
John writes an email to Laura

Subject: Hi Laura
Body: Hi Laura, How are you? What's your plan for this weekend? Let's go to the state fair at Dallas.

2. SMTP server at reads "TO" field and breaks it into two parts e.g is broken into "Laura.Johnson" and ""

3. SMTP server at queries to DNS server; Who is SMTP server at
DNS server looks into MX records and replies back with one or more SMTP servers at

4. SMTP server at connects to one of the SMTP server at and handles the message. SENDMAIL and POSTFIX are the most popular MTA (Mail Transfer Agent) to deliver mail from one SMTP server to another another SMTP server. My preference is POSTFIX as it's free, easy, secure, customizable and popular too.

5. SMTP server at recognizes that "Laura.Johnson" is the user at and it handover the message to gmail POP3/IMAP server which puts the message in the Laura.Johnson's INBOX.

6. Laura logs in to and checks her email.

It's that easy. Remember, we didn't talk about handling the junk emails.
It goes little bit complex for handling the junk emails. Please google about that if you want to know more...

Extra Treat:

SMTP commands:

POP3 commands:

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

How can I setup VLAN on my Windows XP or Workstation?

If you have Intel NIC card, you are lucky. Intel PROset utility/driver allows you to add/remove VLAN on your workstation.

You could download Intel PROset from
Go to Downloads and Drivers and search for Intel PROset and choose your operating system

Install the downloaded executable file
(While installing it will prompt if you want to use MMC for the management, select YES)

It will also ask if you want to remove old drivers and settings, you can say NO

Once it is installed, Right Click "My Computer" --> Manage --> Device Manager --> Network Adapters --> Right Click "Inter(R) XXXX whatever it shows " --> Properties --> VLAN and add your desired VLAN ID

Try to access other devices on the same VLAN. It should work. If not contact your network administrator.

Other TIPS:
1. Start --> Run --> winmsd

if Processor properties has x86, your OS is 32 bit
if Processor properties has ia64, your OS is 64 bit

2. Device manager will show you the vendor of your NIC card. It could be Realtek, INTEL, Broadcom. The above procedure for VLAN will only work for INTEL NIC.

Monday, October 4, 2010

Remote Desktop in console mode

If you are using Windows XP RDP client, for RDP in console mode

mstsc /console

If you are using Windows Vista or above, it doesn't use /console session, it uses /admin session

mstsc /admin